4.- ON HOW THE WORD “HISTOR”, “JUDGE”, IT PASSED TO MEAN “HISTORIAN” 

Homer used the Greek word “Histôr” with the meaning of “the one that knows the law”, that is to say as synonym of “judge”, in two verses of the “Iliad.” In the XVIIIth Song, v. 501, he says: “both appeal a judge to have a decision”;“amphô d iesthên epi histori peirar elesthai”).
In the XXIIIth Song, v. 486: “let us appoint referee to Agamemnon Atrides” ; “histora d Atreidên Agamemnona theiomen amphô”), mentioning to a horse race in that the very difficult referee position is assigned to a person that is not only able to see with clarity that happened but rather his/her partners also consider him/her impartial and incorruptible.


        Herodotus used the word (“historiai”) later on that means in Greek “investigations” or “inquiries” to title his known work “The Nine Books of the History”, dedicated to record the facts of the past. He focused the purpose of his investigations in his desire of “that the facts of the men do not disappear with the time...”
After Herodotus, the word “history” lost its pristine meaning and it passed to mean a tidy story of the events of the men. This way “histôr” acquired the meaning of “historian.” From its etymology it should be deduced that “Historian” it would be the “Judge of the Past.” The Time will only be able to say the last word.

Herodotus Herodotus


        The main beams of the History are the heuristic one and the hermeneutics. The heuristic or investigation technique is very vast and it does not have more limitations than those imposed by the hermeneutics , that is to say for the already discovered by other sciences. From that stated it is deduced that although the document is a very important element, it is not in absolute term. After all most of the civil trials are born in the different ways of construing that expressed by the parts in public writings, all time that in many of them norms were not set up to face the facts of the future.

First Part


5.- PROTOHISTORY OF THE OBSERVED GEOGRAPHICAL FACTS BY HOMER IN THE NORWEGIAN ARCTIC CIRCLE


    The general hypothesis of this investigation forces to demonstrate that the geographical facts succinctly described by Homer in the Iliad and deepened in the Odyssey correspond to easily verifiable realities on the Atlantic coast of Norway and inside the Arctic Circle, conforming the western confine of a fertile continent. Due to the half millennium lapsed among the life of Homer and the time in that the Greeks arrived with their sailings until the Black Sea and the Italian coasts, the new navigators believed to find in each visited region a similar place to certain point referred by Odysseus, what gave base to a confusion that lasts until these days.


        Aware that such an opposed statement to the traditional interpretations has to go accompanied by a unanswerable scientific confirmation, able to make the evidence shine, still for the most incredulous reader's eyes, I will parallel to what said by Homer with the current geographical reality because this has not changed in the last three thousand years. Although these geographical facts are today enough well-known and visitable via Internet, they have never been linked with the trips of Odyssey, in spite of arising its correlation so easily due to the clarity of the Homeric descriptions.


        Since the geographical and astronomical reality of the Norwegian Arctic coast coincides fully with the descriptions contained in the Iliad and in the Odyssey in not less than fifteen different and complementary circumstances, it forces to induce that it cares a test of absolute value to demonstrate that Homer existed and that he personally was there, since geography has not changed.


        As in any other part of the world these fifteen geographical accidents occur on the whole, it is necessary to conclude unavoidably that he knew them personally given his great perspicacity that is noticed in his vivid descriptions. Due to its complexity he neither could have guessed them nor to have received them from third persons. The logic forces. It would be a situation extraordinarily anti-scientific to suppose that so many similarities could be mere coincidences. To all of them, we will refer in detail in the titles that follow.


We affirm the above-mentioned when checking with the Atlas in the hand that all the geographical accidents described in the Iliad and in the Odyssey express with enormous realism the marine environment that on the whole is developed on the Norwegian coast, where the region of the Arctic Circle begins. In any other part of the world this double conjunction is found, facts and geographical descriptions so vivid that have the flavor, scent and noise of the sea.


        It is possible that the Homer´s journeys could seem a great novelty because of the fact that Homer has been considered only a poet up to now. This is not strange because Hesiod, that was his first commentator, did not know nor he could know that Homer navigated with the Phoenicians neither less up to where he traveled with them. Even more, as Hesiod was never a navigator, he wrongly had been able to capture the inherent vicissitudes of sailings effected in the stormy arctic areas.

6.- THE PHOENICIANS OR TAPHIANS CHANGED BRASS FROM TEMESA, POSSIBLE THAMES, FOR IRON 


    I presume that Homer would have easily been able to navigate in some Phoenician ship as a carpenter, the current engineer, because he should have known this language because his governess or preceptor was a Sidonian of noble ancestry acquired by his father whom captured the boy's remarkable intellectual capacity immediately and she could teach him to write in verses the Phoenician language.

        Car of the sun

                                                            Car of the sun

Homer used fictitious characters in order not to speak in first person and in this case he used the goddess Athena disguised of the swineherd Eumaeus to tell these biographical data in the XVth Song of the Odyssey, v. 402 at 454.


    He also tells us in the verse 184 of the Song I of the Odyssey that Athena disguised of Mentes, king of the taphians, made reference to that these from Temesa took brass in exchange for iron. Of the simple reading of the text it is possible to induce that when speaking of Temesa, Homer referred concretely to the current Thames where brass was exchanged by iron whose origin is not specified. The linking of Temesa with the Thames arises unequivocally of the fact that centuries later Julius Caesar when invading the south of Britannia, he preserved the native name of Tamesa to refer it to the main river of that country.

        This confirms this appreciation about the modern archaeological discoveries related to old tin exploitations in the Cassiterides Islands or Scilly Islands, so that its production was alloyed with copper brought, perhaps, from Cyprus to produce the bronze.


        As for the place from where the Phoenicians would bring the iron, one could think that this should come from the arctic coast of Norway, because there this mineral is abundant. In prehistoric time, in all the regions of Scandinavia, including Denmark, the iron abundance should be such that this mineral appeared in the swamps and it accumulated in layers in the peat-bogs, facilitating the production of acceptable tools and weapons.
The knowledge that the Ancient people had the about how to on temper the iron is deduced from the Song IX of the Odyssey, v.390 to 394 in that it is told how the eye of the Cyclops creaked in contact with the fire of a burning stake, the same as the iron creaks to the red when the blacksmith submerges it in cold water to achieve its biggest hardness or temper. Homer also mentioned this metal directly when describing the “iron axis”, “sidereo axoni”) of the chariot of the goddess Hera, in the Iliad, V, 723.

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